A freckle is a small spot of melanin that appears on the human skin and is flat and circular. This discoloration develops randomly to the skin, usually after exposure to the sun. Colours range from red to yellow to tan to black to light-brown to brown. During the summer, they are more common. Freckles affect men and women equally.

Freckles are caused by the following factors:

  • The sun is a major factor in freckle development. By reducing sun exposure or eliminating it, freckles will fade.
  • Freckles are caused by some skin cells that produce a pigment called melanin. Freckles may occur if melanin begins to accumulate at one spot in the body for an extended period of time.
  • Genetics is also a factor in freckle formation.
  • The excess pigment produced by pigment-producing cells when exposed to sunlight due to hormone problems will lead to freckles.
  • Skin that is fair may also cause freckles. Melanin levels are lower in fair skin, which causes melanin production to increase.

Freckle treatments include:

  • One of the best ways to treat freckles is to use a bleaching cream containing hydroquinone and kojic acid. When applied repeatedly for a few months, they may assist in erasing freckles.
  • The method of freezing freckles with liquid nitrogen is known as cryosurgery.
  • A chemical peel can be used to treat age spots, freckles, discoloration, wrinkles and fine lines. Freckles are generally cured gradually with these products, and the skin is generally made smooth and firm.
  • A newer form of facial rejuvenation is intense pulsed light (IPL). It can treat both the epidermis and the dermis of the skin, without damaging the epidermis. Consequently, there is little recovery time or downtime.
  • If a topical application of Tretinoin (vitamin A acid) is applied over a period of time, it helps make freckles lighter.
  • There is also the option of laser treatment for freckles. Freckles can be effectively removed with the laser light but it requires multiple sessions. Laser Q-switches have shown excellent results.